Journal of the Nigerian Society of Physical Sciences 2020-05-15T14:51:55+00:00 Babatunde James Falaye (Ph.D.) Open Journal Systems <p>Journal of the Nigerian Society of Physical Sciences is a peer-reviewed journal published quarterly (February, May, August &amp; November) by the Nigerian Society of Physical Sciences. It offers an exciting publication outlet for Physical Science reports.</p> Energy distribution of an ion cloud in a quadrupole Penning Trap 2020-05-15T14:51:55+00:00 B. M. Dyavappa <p>Ions are confined in Penning trap by the combination of electric field and magnetic field, as the electric field confines ions in the axial direction through an electric potential minimum and the magnetic field applied along the axis of the trap confines the ions in the radial direction. In the high temperature limit Coulomb interaction of ions can be neglected and the total energy is due to the electrostatic potential energy of the charge of ions and kinetic energy due to thermal energy. However, in the low temperature limit the trapping potential created by the dc voltage applied between the end cap and ring electrodes is cancelled by Coulomb interaction of ions and the total energy is mainly kinetic energy of ions. The probability density of energy distribution of ions along axial direction, in radial plane and total probability density of energy distribution due to resulting motion of both axial and radial motion of ions under high temperature and low temperature limits in a Quadrupole Penning trap are presented here. These results reveal the energy properties of ion cloud and are useful to carry out accurate measurement experiments on single stored particle, antiparticles with energy related parameters, under high temperature and low temperature limits in a Quadrupole Penning trap.</p> 2020-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of the Nigerian Society of Physical Sciences Mathematical modelling of concentration profiles for species transport through the single and the interconnected multiple-compartment systems 2020-05-15T14:51:55+00:00 Oludare Adedire J. N. Ndam <p>In this research work, we investigate the concentration profiles in the single and the interconnected multiple-compartment systems with sieve partitions for the transport of chemical species with second order chemical reaction kinetics. With assumption of unidirectional transport of chemical species and constant physical properties with same equilibrium contant, the developed partial differential equations representing the two systems are spatially discretized using the Method of Lines (MOL) technique and the resulting semi-discrete system of ODEs are solved using MATLAB ode15s solver. The results show that the interconnected multiple-compartment system has lower concentration profile than the single-compartment system for different values of diffusivities.</p> 2020-05-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of the Nigerian Society of Physical Sciences Solving third order ordinary differential equations directly using hybrid numerical models 2020-05-15T14:51:54+00:00 J. O. Kuboye O. F. Quadri O. R. Elusakin <p>In this work, numerical methods for solving third order initial value problems of ordinary differential equations are developed. Multi-step collocation is used in deriving the methods, where power series approximate solution is employed as a basis function. Gaussian elimination approach is considered in finding the unknown variables $a_j, j=0(1)8$ in interpolation and collocation equations, which are substituted into the power series to give the continuous implicit schemes. The discrete schemes and its derivatives are derived by evaluating the grid and non-grid points. These schemes are arranged in a matrix form to produce block methods. The order of the developed methods are found to be six. The numerical results proved the efficiency of the methods over the existing methods.</p> 2020-05-13T16:58:54+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of the Nigerian Society of Physical Sciences Inter-Hemispheric Comparison of Ionospheric TEC Variation at Each Latitudinal Band During Quiet Geomagnetic Condition 2020-05-15T14:51:54+00:00 Shola Adebiyi Isaac Adimula Olushola Oladipo <p>This paper compares the quiet time variation of the Total Electron Content (TEC) over four stations located at high and mid latitudes in the northern and southern hemispheres of the African-European longitudes. Five years Global Positioning System (GPS) data, from 2002 to 2006, representing the periods of high to low solar activities were used for the study. Generally, the maximum diurnal values of TEC are observed between 10:00 – 14:00 LT in all the stations during the periods investigated. The minimum values of TEC are observed during the pre-sunrise hours for the two mid latitude stations and around the pre-midnight/post-midnight for the high latitude stations. The maximum values of TEC, however vary with season, latitude and solar activity in all the stations. The values decrease with increase in latitudes and decrease in solar activity. The values range between 10 – 32 and 11 – 50 TECU respectively, for high and mid latitudes for all the years considered. Seasonally, the highest values of TEC are generally observed during the equinoxes in all the stations except at the southern mid latitude station where it can as well be observed in summer, particularly during the Moderate Solar Activity (MSA) and Low Solar Activity (LSA) periods. The lowest values of TEC are observed in winter in all the stations in the southern hemisphere and can be observed in both winter and summer for stations in the northern hemisphere depending on the latitude and solar activity period. TEC variation also exhibits (1) asymmetry in the equinoctial values in all the stations and the magnitude is most pronounced during the period of High Solar Activity (HSA); (2) winter ionosphere anomaly feature, observed only in the northern hemisphere stations; and (3) daytime minimum and nighttime maximum in the diurnal structures of TEC at high latitude in the northern hemisphere during the winter. The nighttime maximum value was observed around 21:00 LT with magnitude that decreases with decrease in solar activity. The annual maximum value of TEC decreases with solar activity at all the stations, with the highest/lowest peak observed in HSA/LSA periods.</p> 2020-05-13T19:25:24+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of the Nigerian Society of Physical Sciences Optimal Power Point on the I-V Curve of a Photovoltaic Solar System (Modelling and Analysis) 2020-05-15T14:51:55+00:00 Baba Alfa Yakubu Adamu Daniel Alberto Pena Perez <p>Motivated by recent interest in improving the performance of PV cells, we explored the optimal power point in Photovoltaic (PV) cells by using three different topologies to compare its function and efficacy. Firstly, we investigate the consequence of connecting a PV directly to the load. Secondly, the efficacy of an electronic device that generates a pulse width modulation (PWM) to control a boost converter connected to the PV panel and the load and finally the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method by using the Algorithm Perturb and Observe (P\&amp;O), with the implementation of the DC-DC converter between the PV panel and the load. In doing so, a mathematical model of the PV cell was employed and using MATLAB Simulink, the behaviour of the voltage and current signals acquired were analysed, this helps in understanding the performance of the solar cell under different meteorological circumstances, and its effect on the power generated by the PV cell. Finally, based on the performance simulations on the three methods implemented, the results were tested for the response time of the MPPT under different load conditions in order to ascertain it performance.</p> 2020-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of the Nigerian Society of Physical Sciences Comparison of the Solution of the Van der Pol Equation Using the Modified Adomian Decomposition Method and Truncated Taylor Series Method 2020-05-15T14:51:55+00:00 Joel Ndam O. Adedire <p>In this paper, we compare the solution of the van der Pol equation obtained by using the truncated Taylor series method and the modified Adomian decomposition method with the solution obtained by the Poincare-Lindstedt (P-L) method. The approximating 4-component modified Adomian decomposition method behaves more like an approximate P-L analytic method than the tenth-order Taylor series. Also, with the addition of just one term, the approximating 5-component modified Adomian decomposition method produces a more convergent solution to that of P-L analytic method than the twenty second-order Taylor series approximation as the independent variable t representing time progressively increases. A general comparison of the two solutions revealed that the absolute errors generated by the approximating polynomial from the Taylor series are greater than the ones generated from the modified Adomian decomposition method. It was further revealed that very few components of the modified Adomian decomposition could yield a series of about 3 times the order of the one obtained by using the Taylor series method. Hence, we recommend the inclusion of the modified Adomian Decomposition Method in modern mathematical tools.</p> 2020-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of the Nigerian Society of Physical Sciences