Assessment of Excess Gamma Dose Exposure Level in Typical Nigeria Commercial Building Materials Distribution Outlets
Keywords:Building material, Ikare Akoko, Akure, indoor and outdoor gamma exposure, building material shop/store, annual effective dose.
The gamma dose rate exposure levels from different brands of building materials at commercial distribution stores/shops in two major cities in Ondo State, Nigeria, were measured using a well calibrated Inspector 1000 scintillator detector. The results showed that the different brands of building materials which are Corrugated iron sheet, Aluminum roofing sheets, Conduit pipes, Paints, Cement, PVC pipes, Wash hand basin, Bath tub, Water closet, Kitchen zinc, Asbestos, Floor tiles, Wall tiles, Bullet proof door, Binding wire, rings and rods, Red bricks, Galvanized pipes, Copper pipes, Water tanks contributed excess annual effective doses of 0.332 mSv/y and 0.311mSv/y to store keepers in Ikare Akoko and Akure cities respectively. The indoor and outdoor annual effective dose of each of the investigated two cities are correlated using simple linear regression equations. The results of the modeling and experiment show that annual effective dose received by the occupants of these shops/stores was about 12 % higher than what could be received in a typical natural radiation environment in the two cities because the building materials acts as a source of radiation indoor. The research indicated that the typical habit of using poorly ventilated and confined space as stores/shops by the sales men might subject them to internal exposure through inhalation of radon gas and its short-lived decay products. Implementation of the developed equations would definitely promote rapid determination of outdoor annual effective dose through indoor annual effective dose and ultimately save time and other valuable resources.
A. Chandrasekaran, R. Ravisankar, A. Rajalakshmi, P. Eswaran, P. Vijayagopal & B. Venkatraman, “Assessment of natural radioactivity and function of minerals in soils of Yelagiri hills, Tamilnadu, India by Gamma Ray spectroscopic and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques with statistical approach” Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molec. Biomole. Spectro. 136 (2015) 1734. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2014.10.075. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2014.10.075
G. La Verde, A. Raulo, V. DAvino, V. Roca & M. Pugliese “Radioactivity content in natural stones used as building materials in Puglia region analysed by high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy: Preliminary results” Construct. Build. Mate. 239 (2020) 117668. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117668. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117668
W. Feng, Y. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Wang, C. Zhu, L. Shi, X. Hou & X. Qie, “Spatial distribution, risk assessment and influence factors of terrestrial gamma radiation dose in China” J. Environ. Radio. 222 (2020) 106325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2020.106325. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2020.106325
E. Hazou & T. E. Patchali, “Assessment of radiological hazards in the phosphate mining area of Kpogame, Togo”, Case Studies in Chem. Environ. Engin. 3 (2021) 100077. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cscee.2020.100077. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cscee.2020.100077
R .M. Anjos, A. J. Juri, A. S. Cid, R. Cardoso & T. Lacerda,“External gammaray dose rate and radon concentration in indoor environments covered with Brazilian granites”, J. Environ. Radio. 102 (2011) 1055. https://doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.06.001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.06.001
B.M. Moharram, M.N. Suliman, N.F. Zahran, S.E. Shennawy & A.R. ElSayed, “External exposure doses due to gamma emitting natural radionuclides in some Egyptian building materials” Appl. Rad. Isot. 70 (2012) 241, https://doi:10.1016/j.apradiso.2011.07.013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2011.07.013
E. Devanesan, J. Chandramohan, G. Senthilkumar, N. Harikrishnan, M. S. Gandhi, S. S. Kolekar & R. Ravisankar “Natural radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment in coastal sediments along the East Coast of Tamilnadu, India with statistical approach” Acta Ecologica Sinica. 40 (2020) 353, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chnaes.2019.06.001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chnaes.2019.06.001
UNSCEAR, “Sources and effects of ionizing radiation without scientific annexes”, New York, (2000).
K. A. Pradeep Kumar , G.A. Shanmugha Sundaram, B. K. Sharma, S. Venkatesh & R. Thiruvengadathan, “Advances in gamma radiation detection systems for emergency radiation monitoring” Nucl. Engin. Tech. 52 (2020) 2151, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.net.2020.03.014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.net.2020.03.014
M. F. Attallaha, H. M. Abdelbarya, E. A. Elsofanya, Y. T. Mohameda & M. M. Abo-Alyb, “Radiation safety and environmental impact assessment of sludge TENORM waste produced from petroleum industry in Egypt”, Process Safety and Environ. Protec. 142 (2020) 308, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2020.06.012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2020.06.012
A. Gelana, A. Mohammed, B. Haftu, T. Endale & N. Biniyam, “Radiation levels in buildings on the main campus of Haramaya niversity and at the towns of Harar and Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia” East Afri. J. Sci. 10 (2016) 133.
Wikipeadia, “Background Radiation” http://en.m.wikipedia .org. (2018).
A. M. Asere & S. O. Sedara, “Determination of Natural Radioactivity Concentration and Radiogenic Heat Production in Selected Quarry Sites in Ondo State, Nigeria” NIPES J. Sci. Tech. Res. 2 (2020) 256, https://doi.org/10.37933/nipes/2.3.2020.6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.37933/nipes/2.3.2020.26
D. I. Jwanbot, M. M. Izam, G. G. Iyam & I. S. Agada, “Evaluation of indoor background ionizing radiation profile in some hospitals in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria” J. Nat. Sci. Res. 2 (2012) 7.
N. N. Jibiri & S.T.U. Obarhua, “Indoor and outdoor gamma dose rate exposure levels in major commercial building materials distribution outlets and their radiological implications to occupants in Ibadan” J. Nat. Sci. Res.. 3 (2013) 25.
S. O. Sedara & A. M. Asere, “Review of variability of radiogenic heat properties of some rock types as a basis for geothermal characterization in Nigeria” Integrity Res. J. 5 (2020) 82, https://doi.org/10.31248/GJEES20203
A. O. Jayeola, A. C. Ogunleye & J. Dogo, “An investigation on the water chemistry from geologic controls on water sources around Ikare Akoko Area, Southwestyern Nigeria” Inter. J. Sci. Tech. 2 (2014) 140.
M. A. Rahaman, “Review of the Basement Geology of Southwestern Nigeria”. Elizabeth Publishing Co. Lagos. (1976) 41.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of the Nigerian Society of Physical Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The Journal of the Nigerian Society of Physical Sciences (JNSPS) is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC BY-NC) license. This license was developed to facilitate open access, namely, it allows articles to be freely downloaded and to be re-used and re-distributed without restriction, as long as the original work is correctly cited. More specifically, anyone may copy, distribute or reuse these articles, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article, mine the article even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s).