Optimal representation to High Order Random Boolean kSatisability via Election Algorithm as Heuristic Search Approach in Hopeld Neural Networks



  • Hamza Abubakar School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • Abdu Sagir Masanawa Department of Mathematical Sciences, Federal Uniersity Dutsin-Ma, Katsina, Nigeria
  • Surajo Yusuf Department of Mathematical Sciences, Federal Uniersity Dutsin-Ma, Katsina, Nigeria
  • G. I. Boaku Department of Mathematical Sciences, Federal Uniersity Dutsin-Ma, Katsina, Nigeria


Hopfield neural network, Election algorithm, Boolean satisfiability, Random kSatisfiability


This study proposed a hybridization of higher-order Random Boolean kSatisfiability (RANkSAT) with the Hopfield neural network (HNN) as a neuro-dynamical model designed to reflect knowledge efficiently. The learning process of the Hopfield neural network (HNN) has undergone significant changes and improvements according to various types of optimization problems. However, the HNN model is associated with some limitations which include storage capacity and being easily trapped to the local minimum solution. The Election algorithm (EA) is proposed to improve the learning phase of HNN for optimal Random Boolean kSatisfiability (RANkSAT) representation in higher order. The main source of inspiration for the Election Algorithm (EA) is its ability to extend the power and rule of political parties beyond their borders when seeking endorsement. The main purpose is to utilize the optimization capacity of EA to accelerate the learning phase of HNN for optimal random k Satisfiability representation. The global minima ratio (mR) and statistical error accumulations (SEA) during the training process were used to evaluate the proposed model performance. The result of this study revealed that our proposed EA-HNN-RANkSAT outperformed ABC-HNN-RANkSAT and ES-HNN-RANkSAT models in terms of mR and SEA.This study will further be extended to accommodate a novel field of Reverse analysis (RA) which involves data mining techniques to analyse real-life problems. 


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How to Cite

Abubakar, H., Masanawa, A. S., Yusuf, S., & Boaku, G. I. (2021). Optimal representation to High Order Random Boolean kSatisability via Election Algorithm as Heuristic Search Approach in Hopeld Neural Networks. Journal of the Nigerian Society of Physical Sciences, 3(3), 201–208. https://doi.org/10.46481/jnsps.2021.217



Original Research