Antimicrobial Assessment of Different Solvent Extracts of the Root-bark, Stem-bark and Leaves of Acacia ataxacantha Linn.
Acacia ataxacantha DC. (Fabaceae) is one of the most important medicinal plant used traditionally in managing many ailments in Nigeria particularly infectious diseases. In this study, the stem-bark, roots and leaves of A. ataxacantha were extracted using hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water (from non-polar to polar solvents). These extracts were initially screened to identify the secondary metabolites present. They were then examined against eight bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi-murium) and seven fungi (Candida albicans, Penicillium spp, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Trichophyton megninii, Trichophyton. rubrum, Salmonella typhi-murium). Disc diffusion method was employed to establish the antimicrobial activity of the plant parts. Serial dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal (MBC) and fungicidal concentration (MFC). Methanol and hexane fractions of the root bark exhibited the highest inhibition zone ranging from 19-21 mm against the tested microorganism hence these were further assessed by determining their MIC, MBC and MFC. MIC value for the aqueous extract of the plant was 25 mg/cm3 against the fungi used while the methanol fraction was 15 mg/cm3 against the bacteria used. This work suggests that Acacia ataxacantha may possess compounds which can be a template for acquiring novel drugs which could act against infectious diseases.
www.who.int/gho/publications/world_health_statistics/2016/Annex_B/en/ (Date accessed: May 2018).
A. Doss, Muhammed M. H. & R. Dhanabalan, "Antibacterial activity of tannins from Solanum trilobatum Linn. Leaves", Indian Journal of Science and Technology 2 (2009) 41.
V. P. R. Anand Bhatt J. K. Varghese J. M. Das & K. R. Sushanta, "Supplementation of Vitamin E Improves Cognitive Status and Oxidative Stress in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus", International Research Journal of Pharmacy 2 (2011) 169.
O. M. Bello, T. Ibitoye & C. Adetunji, "Assessing antimicrobial agents of Nigeria flora Journal of King Saud University – Science", (2018). doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2018.04.017.
J. Harvey & A. Gilmour, "Characterization of recurrent and sporadic Listeria monocytogenes isolates from raw milk and nondairy foods by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, monocin typing, plasmid profiling, and cadmium and antibiotic resistance determination", Applied Environment Microbiology 67 (2001) 840.
Z. Ruiz-Bolivar, A.K. Carrascal-Camacho, M. C. Neuque-Rico, C. Gutiérrez-Triviño, M. X. Rodríguez-Bocanegra, R. A Poutou-Piñales & M. Salim, "Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensuspolymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) fingerprinting reveals intra-serotype variations among circulating Listeria monocytogenes strains", African Journal of Microbiology Research 5 (2008) 1586.
G. Sakoulas, & R.C. Moellering Jnr, "Increasing Antibiotic Resistance among Methicillin-Resistance Staphylococcus Aureus Strains", Clinical Infectious Diseases 46 (2008) 360.
B. P. Howden, J. K. Davies, P. D. R. Johnson, T. P. Stinear & M. L. Grayson, "Reduced vancomycin susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus, including vancomycin-intermediate and heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate strains: resistance mechanisms, laboratory detection and clinical implications", Clinical Microbiology Reviews 23 (2010) 99.
B. L. Stuart, & M. Bonnie, Antibacterial resistance worldwide: causes, challenges and responses. Nature Medicine Supplement 10 (2004) 134.
M. Sourav, H. Bibhabasu, S. Rhitajit, B. Santanu & M. Nripendranath," Hemidesmus Indicus, an age-old plant: study of its in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging potentials", Pharmacology-online 1 (2009) 604.
T. G. Winstanley, D.I. Limb, R. Eggington & F. Hancock, "10-year survey of the antimicrobial susceptibility of urinary tract isolates in the UK: The Microbe Base project", Journal Antimicrobiology Chemotherapy 40 (1997) 591.
O. M., Bello, A. A. Zaki, I. S. Khan, P. S. Fasinu, Z. Ali, I. A. Khan, L. A. Usman & O. S. Oguntoye, "Assessment of selected medicinal plants indigenous to West Africa for antiprotozoal activity 113 (2017) 200.
A. M. O. Amoussa, L. Latifou, B. Mélanie, C. Vonthron-Senecheau, & S. Ambaliou, "Triterpenoids from Acacia ataxacantha DC: antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 16 (2016) 284.
O. M. Bello, S. M. Jagaba, S. M. Abubakar, "Recent Perception of the Ethnomedicinal Importance of Acacia ataxacantha (DC) Its Pharmacology and Phytochemistry: A Review", FUDMA Journal of Sciences 3 (2019) 91.
E. A. Sofowora, "Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. 2nd ed.", Spectrum Books limited Ibadan, Nigeria 9 (1993) 289.
G. E. Trease, & W. C. Evans, A Textbook of Pharmacognosy, 13th ed." Bailliere Tindall Ltd, London (1989) 134.
N. Lalnundanga, N. Lalchawimawii, & K. Thanzami, "Antimicrobial Activity of Methanol Extract of Root Bark of Hiptage benghalensis (L) Kurz", Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 3 (2015) 119.
R. Mathur, "Phytochemical and antimicrobial evaluation of plant extracts of enicostemma hyssopifolium", Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2 (2013) 30.
A. P. Ravathie, R. Sevvel, N. Nirmala & H. Kularajany, "Alternative culture media for bacterial growth using different formulation of protein sources", Journal of Natural Product and Plant Resources 2 (2012) 697.
C. Thornsberry & R. S. Donald, "Broth-Dilution Method for determining the antibiotic susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria", Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 7 (1975) 15.
D. Umaiyambigai & K. Saravanakumar, "Screening of phytochemical and antimicrobial activity from the leaves of Pleiospermium alatum (Wall. & Arn.) Swingle", Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research 7 (2015) 498.
T. C. Akapa, R. O. Arise, O. J. Olajide & I. T. Ikusemoro, "Ulcero-protective Potentials of Methanolic Extract of Acacia ataxacantha Leaves in Indomethacin and Stress-Induced Gastric Ulcer Models", International Journal of Biochemistry Research 4 (2015) 312.
R. Venkataswamy, H. Mohamed Mubarack, A. Doss, S. Lakshmi Devi & M. Sukumar, "Antimicrobial activity of some ethnomedicinal plants used by the Malasar tribe of Tamilnadu, South India", Research Journal of Biological Sciences 2 (2010) 25.
K. Seo, H. Akiyoshi & Y. Ohnishi, "Alteration of cell wall composition leads to amphotericin B resistance in Aspergillus flavus", Microbiology and Immunology 43 (1993) 1017.
Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of the Nigerian Society of Physical Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.